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Sex life of cucumbers


Ah, cucumbers. What would summertime be without their smooth white flesh, moist crunchiness and seductively subtle taste? There simply is no substitute, whether eaten on their own, sprinkled with salt; chopped up into salads dressed with a fruity cider vinegar and peppery olive oil; or stir fried Thai style for an outside-the-box treat.

Passandra cucumbers sliced cucumbers for a salad

A good crop of cucumbers var. Passendra waiting to be harvested; sliced cucumbers

Though cucumbers are a favoured mainstream vegetable, beneath a façade of propriety lies a secret that is as complex as it is intriguing: a varied sex life worthy of the best racy novels.

But rather than scorn the pansexual life style of cucumbers, we gardeners can embrace it. It is only when we fully understand their behaviour that we can take full advantage of all they have to offer. Fortunately, their sexual proclivities are determined by their flowering habits, and these fall into a few well-defined categories.

  • Monoecious

Most cucumbers are monoecious, which means they have separate male and female flowers on the same plant. Under normal circumstances, the female flowers need to be pollinated by insects in order to instigate fruit development. Because they have been pollinated the fruit naturally contain seeds, which can get big and tough, adversely affects the eating quality of the cucumber, if harvesting is delayed.

Some monoecious cucumbers are also parthenocarpic, which means that the female flowers will develop into fruit even if they aren’t pollinated. Growers can take advantage of this anomaly to produce highly desirable seedless fruit – all they have to do is prevent pollination, either by removing the male flowers as soon as they appear or, for protected crops, by eliminating insects from the greenhouse or tunnel.

  • Gynoecious

Modern breeding has produced cucumber varieites that produce all, or predominantly all, female flowers – seed catalogues aptly describe these as ‘all female’. Fortunately, they are also parthenocarpic, yielding tender-skinned, seedless fruits of a superb quality. Just occassionally male flowers appear when the plants are stressed, and these should be removed to prevent pollination. 

  • Andromonoecious

Though uncommon, some cultivars such as the oddly-shaped ‘Crystal Lemon’ have male flowers as well as separate hermaphroditic flowers (which have both male and female organs) on the same plant.

A male cucumber flower

 A male cucumber flower.

A female cucumber flower An open female cucumber flower

A bud of female cucumber flower with an immature cucumber already developed and a fully open female flower.


© Michael Michaud

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